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电影丧尸来袭完整版:
脫歐協議對英國油氣行業貿易產生巨大影響

2019-08-06     來源: 中國石化新聞網
石化新聞

中國石化新聞網訊 據油田技術8月5日報道,在鮑里斯?約翰遜(Boris Johnson)被任命為英國首相后,總部位于利茲的都鐸國際貨運公司(Tudor International Freight)董事亞當?約翰遜(Adam Johnson)敦促企業緊急審查它們與歐盟企業簽訂的合同。

約翰遜表示,受影響的企業應該進行相關分析,以期在不退出協議的情況下尋求必要的改變。他表示,新首相多次承諾英國將在10月31日前推出歐盟,這意味著他將提高出現這種結果的可能性。英國在沒有達成退出協議的情況下離開歐盟,將使其與歐盟的貿易關系不可避免地會發生重大改變。最需要考慮重大變化是英國石油和天然氣企業與歐盟(EU)企業之間的合同,可能需要明確誰應在英國退歐談判無果后,承擔包括關稅在內的稅款,由于英國是歐盟關稅同盟的成員國,這些規定不適用于這兩個地區之間的貨物貿易。

政府在今年3月宣布,協議若不達成,英國退出歐盟后,將導致從歐盟購買的商品的關稅比例,大致與從其他國家進口商品的關稅比例保持一致。不過,這一百分比將來可能會增加,因為這將是一項為期一年的短期決定。歐盟也表示將從第一天起對英國出口的產品征收關稅。

約翰遜稱,另一個需要重新考慮的方面是,誰是跨國界運輸物品和相關費用的支付者。在英國脫歐無果之后,這個角色可能會很復雜。持有相關貿易訂單的企業通常被要求在“合理時間內”完成交易,但由于多佛和英吉利海峽隧道(Channel Tunnel)等地點的貨物要經過邊境檢查,這可能會帶來阻礙?!?/p>

他強調,尋求修改合同相關協議的企業應該牢記國際商會制定的11項國際貿易術語解釋通則。這些是與跨境貨物貿易有關的合同和發票中使用的標準縮寫。七種適用于任何運輸方式,四種專門用于海運或內河運輸。

他表示:“《國際貿易術語解釋通則》旨在減少貿易商之間的誤解和沖突,從而減少法律糾紛和訴訟。它們有助于明確誰負責安排和支付運輸、保險和關稅等問題?!?/p>

約翰遜表示,國際貿易術語解釋通則包括DDP(已付運費)和EXW(工廠交貨)。并表示:“買家通常承擔關稅, 但如果英國石油和天然氣部門的出口商與外國客戶簽訂了按DDP交貨的合同,賣方將承擔這一責任,并承?;蹺锘竦媒誶騫廝璧娜魏紋淥撾?。相反,如果合同是以EXW為基礎簽訂的,客戶必須在出口商所在地提貨,然后負責運輸、保險和關稅等海關事務?!?/p>

《國際貿易術語解釋通則》沒有涵蓋所有相關問題。因此,合同仍然需要包含額外的關鍵條款。例如:由于無法預見的情況而無法履行其職責的各方責任人。

他表示:“對英國相關油氣企業的建議是,現在重新審視與歐盟公司的現有合同,尤其是我們已確定的關鍵領域。然后,如果無法達成脫歐協議成為必然,那么在必要時,尋求修改這些條款。并且注意,國際貿易術語解釋通則在確保涉及重要問題和明確、簡明地確定誰應對什么負責方面非常有用。除了審查并修改現有合同,我們還敦促受到影響的企業在未來從零開始起草與歐盟企業的協議時牢記這些要點,如果脫歐協議實效?!?/p>

洪偉立 摘譯自 油田技術

原文如下:

UK businesses urged to review EU contracts

Adam Johnson, director of Leeds-based Tudor International Freight, has urged businesses to review contracts they have in place with companies in the EU urgently following Boris Johnson’s appointment as UK Prime Minister.

Johnson said affected enterprises should undertake these analyses with a view to seeking any changes needed in the event of a no-deal Brexit. He said the new premier’s repeated pledges that the UK would leave the EU by 31 October must mean his accession had increased the likelihood of such an outcome.

Johnson said his advice stemmed from the fact that the UK departing the EU without a withdrawal agreement would make major alterations in its trading relationship with the bloc almost inevitable.

He said: “Perhaps the most significant change to consider is that contracts between UK oil and gas businesses and companies in the EU will probably need to specify who is liable for paying customs duties, including tariffs, after a no-deal Brexit. These don’t apply to goods traded between the two areas now as Britain is part of the bloc’s customs union.

“The government announced in March that, following any no-deal Brexit, it would immediately bring the proportion of goods we buy from the EU attracting tariffs roughly into line with that applying to our imports overall. This percentage could increase in the future, however, as that would be a temporary arrangement lasting up to a year. The EU has also said it will apply customs duties to our exports from day one.”

Johnson said another important area to reconsider was who was responsible for transporting items across frontiers and meeting the associated costs.

He said: “After a no-deal Brexit, this role could be onerous. The organisation holding it is normally required legally to deliver orders ‘within a reasonable time’, but this could be more difficult because of border checks on goods passing through locations such as Dover and the Channel Tunnel.”

Johnson said businesses seeking to amend contracts should bear in mind the 11 International Commercial Terms, known as incoterms, developed by the International Chamber of Commerce. These were standard abbreviations used in contracts and invoices relating to cross-border goods trade. Seven applied to any mode of transport and four were specific to conveying items by sea or inland waterway.

He said: “Incoterms aim to reduce misunderstandings and conflict between traders and therefore legal disputes and litigation. They help specify issues such as who’s responsible for the arrangement and payment of shipping, insurance and customs duties.”

Johnson said incoterms included DDP, standing for “delivery duty paid” and EXW, which meant “ex-works”. He said: “Buyers of goods are usually liable for customs duties, but if a UK oil and gas sector exporter contracts with a foreign customer to deliver on a DDP basis, they assume this responsibility and that of carrying out any other tasks needed for the items to receive import clearance.

“Conversely, if the contract is made on an EXW basis, the customer would have to take delivery at the exporter’s premises and then be responsible for shipping, insurance and customs matters, such as duties.”

Johnson said incoterms did not cover all relevant issues. Contracts therefore still needed to contain additional key provisions - covering parties being unable to fulfil their duties due to unforeseen circumstances, for example.

He said: “Our advice to relevant UK oil and gas businesses is thus to review existing contracts with EU companies now, bearing in mind especially the key areas we’ve identified. Then, where necessary, seek to amend these, if a no-deal Brexit becomes inevitable. Remember too that incoterms can be a very useful in ensuring important issues are covered and identifying who is responsible for what, clearly and concisely.

“In addition to reviewing and perhaps seeking to amend existing contracts, we’d also urge affected businesses to bear these points in mind when drawing up agreements from scratch with companies in the EU in the future, should a no-deal Brexit take effect.”

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